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SPORTS INJURIES

Sports injuries can result from accidents, improper training, improper use of protective devices, or from insufficient stretching, heating, or cooling exercises. Pain from sports injuries is usually due to sprains and twists, fractures and dislocations.

ANKLE SPRAIN

A twist occurs when one or more of the outside ankle ligaments are stretched or torn. It can become a chronic problem if not treated properly. You should tell the doctor what was you doing when the twisting occurred. The doctor will examine and may recommend you to take an x-ray to be sure there is no bone fracture. Depending on the number of injured ligaments, the sprain can be classified in I, II or III grade.

DOLOR EN HOMBRO

Tearing of the rotator cuff is a possible result of shoulder inflammation. The of the inflammation syndrome of the shoulder (syndrome of impediment) is due to:

  • The lubricating bag or bursa (synovial) inflammation located just above the rotator cuff, is called bursitis.
  • The rotator cuff tendons inflammation is called tendinitis.
  • Tendons calcification due to use, injury or tears.

Athletes, industrial workers, and houseworkers generally suffer shoulder pain from excessive friction or contraction producing inflammation of the rotator cuff and shoulder blade.

LUMBAR PAIN

Almost everyone will experience low back pain at some point in their lives. This pain can range from mild to severe and may be short or long lasting. However it happens, low back pain can difficult many daily activities.

MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY

Anatomy
The medial collateral ligament runs from the upper inner surface of the upper tibia to the lower inner surface of the femur. This ligament helps to keep the inner portion of the knee joint stable. This ligament is usually injured by trauma to the outer region of the knee, causing the internal region of the joint to undergo abnormal extension and rotation type of movement. A hit to the outside pat of the knee during a football game is a common way for this ligament to be injured.

Symptom
The immediate symptoms are knee swollen causing it to block. In addition, when you palpate the inner side of the knee, pain occurs.

Diagnosis
During the evaluation, your doctor will ask about the injury and how it happened. After discussing your symptoms, the doctor will proceed to examine your knee. It is usually found inflammation in the area of the lesion. It will cause pain by putting pressure on it. A positive test will be obtained if, by applying pressure on the external face of the knee, the inner face experience laxity plus mobility range of the knee limitation. Although most of the time the diagnosis is clinical, your doctor may ask you for a knee x-ray to dismiss fractures and even a nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the degree of the injury.

Treatment
Initial treatment includes relative rest, ice, compression with an elastic bandage to prevent blood loss or a bigger hematoma, elevate and muscle stretching if tolerated. This treatment should continue for 24 - 72 hours. If there is no pain, you can start with subtle movements of the knee. After this stage of recovery, you can include rehabilitation exercises depending on the case. Surgery is often not needed when only the internal collateral ligament has ruptured. Most injuries can heal without the need to immobilize.

HAMSTRINGS MUSCLE TEAR

Anatomy
The hamstrings form the posterior region of the thigh. Its function is to flex the knee while walking.

Cause
Most occasions a tearing of the hamstrings occurs in athletes, who present a muscular overload due to a bad warming or when performing an excessive stretching of the musculature of the thigh demonstrating pain and impediment to continue walking.

Symptom
Hamstring tears usually occur in the thickest part of the thigh, painful to palpation and movement, causing impediment to flex the knee and swelling in addition to changes in coloration. They usually cause you to suddenly stop and fall to the ground.

Diagnosis
During the evaluation, your doctor will ask about the injury and how it happened. After discussing your symptoms, the doctor will proceed to examine your thigh. Usually manifesting swelling in the area of the lesion. By putting pressure on it, it will cause pain. In addition, there will be limitation in the range of movement of the knee. Although most of the time the diagnosis is clinical, your doctor may order a thigh x-ray to dismiss fractures and even a nuclear magnetic resonance, if the symptomatology warrants it and to determine the degree of the lesion.

Treatment
Initial treatment includes relative rest, ice, compression with an elastic bandage to prevent blood loss or a bigger hematoma, elevate and muscle stretching if tolerated. This treatment should continue for 24 - 72 hours. If there is no pain, you can start with subtle movements of the knee. After this stage of recovery, you can include rehabilitation exercises depending on the case. Surgery is selected for patients with total rupture or fracture.

ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURE

Anatomy
The Achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body. It connects the lower leg muscles to the heel and it is used while walking, running or jumping. Although the Achilles tendon is adapted to large pressures it is still susceptible to some injury.

Cause
In most occasions, a tendon rupture occurs in people between 30 - 50 years old, usually athletes who undergoes to an excessive stretch of the lower leg musculature suffering discomfort in the area.

Symptom
Achilles tendon ruptures usually occur 4-6cm from the ankle, they are painful to palpation and movement, causing an impediment to bend the ankle with swelling and changes in coloration.

Diagnosis
During the evaluation, your doctor will ask about the injury and how it happened. After discussing your symptoms, the doctor will proceed to examine your ankle. Usually inflammation is found in the area of ​​the lesion. By putting pressure on it, it will cause pain. In addition, you will explore the calf, with a test called "Thompson" that consists of flexing the knee and pressing on the calf will be absent from flexing the ankle. In order to locate the site of the injury and the extent of this your doctor will ask you for a nuclear magnetic resonance.

Treatment
Non-surgical - Associated with a higher rate of rupture recurrence, apply for minor ruptures, those with medical conditions that exclude them from surgery and less active patients. This treatment involves the use of a cast in a position that allows proper healing of the tendon.

Surgical – This is the mostly used treatment, especially for patients who are physically active. There are several techniques available for rupture repair. The surgeon will select the most suitable procedure for the patient. After surgery, the foot and ankle are initially immobilized with a cast. Subsequently will be recommending rehabilitation movements to finally return to activity in 4 - 6 months.

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